Physical punishment is part of our puritan heritage. Even the most kind-hearted of people, when influenced by this dogmatic set of beliefs, have been known to say something like the following: In my day they would have gotten a good beating. That would have straightened them up.
Toponymy[ edit ] The earliest detailed map of Croydon, drawn by the year-old Jean-Baptiste Say in As the vast majority of place names in the area are of Anglo-Saxon origin, the theory accepted by most philologists is that the name Croydon derives originally from the Anglo-Saxon croh, meaning " crocus ", and denu, " valley ", indicating that, like Saffron Walden in Essex, it was a centre for the cultivation of saffron.
According to John Corbett Anderson,  "The earliest mention of Croydon is in the joint will of Beorhtric and Aelfswth, dated about the year In this Anglo-Saxon document the name is spelt here he uses original script Crogdaene.
Crog was, and still is, the Norse or Danish word for crooked, which is expressed in Anglo-Saxon by crumb, a totally different word. From the Danish came our crook and crooked.
This term accurately describes the locality; it is a crooked or winding valley; in reference to the valley that runs in an oblique and serpentine course from Godstone to Croydon.
However, there was no long-term Danish occupation see Danelaw in Surrey, which was part of Wessex, and Danish-derived nomenclature is also highly unlikely. More recently, David Bird has speculated that the name might derive from a personal name, Crocus: The archbishops used the manor house as an occasional place of residence: Its Domesday assets were: A charter issued by King Coenwulf of Mercia refers to a council that had taken place close to the monasterium meaning minster of Croydon.
The will of John de Croydon, fishmonger, dated 6 Decemberincludes a bequest to "the church of S John de Croydon", the earliest clear record of its dedication.
The church still bears the arms of Archbishop Courtenay and Archbishop Chichelebelieved to have been its benefactors.
Croydon Palace in In Archbishop Robert Kilwardby acquired a charter for a weekly marketand this probably marks the foundation of Croydon as an urban centre. The market place was laid out on the higher ground to the east of the manor house in the triangle now bounded by High Street, Surrey Street and Crown Hill.
By the 16th century the manor house had become a substantial palace, used as the main summer home of the archbishops and visited by monarchs and other dignitaries. The original palace was sold inby then dilapidated and surrounded by slums and stagnant ponds, and a new residenceat nearby Addingtonpurchased in its place.
Many of the buildings of the original Croydon Palace survive, and are in use today as Old Palace School. The Grade I listed Croydon Minster parish church The Parish Church now Croydon Minster is a Perpendicular -style church, which was remodelled in but destroyed in a great fire infollowing which only the tower, south porch, and outer walls remained.
A new church was designed by Sir George Gilbert Scottone of the greatest architects of the Victorian ageand opened in His design loosely followed the previous layout, with knapped flint facing and many of the original features, including several important tombs.
Croydon Parish Church is the burial place of six Archbishops of Canterbury: In addition to the suffragan Bishop of Croydonthe Vicar of Croydon is an important preferment. Six archbishops lived there between andwhen it was sold.
Between and it was the home of the Royal School of Church Music.
It is now a conference and banqueting venue. Croydon was a leisure destination in the mid 19th century. Burton was responsible for the Beulah Spa Hotel demolished around and the layout of the grounds. One widely publicised event was a "Grand Scottish Fete" on 16 September "with a tightrope performance by Pablo Fanquethe black circus performer who would later dominate the Victorian circus and achieve immortality in The Beatles song, Being for the Benefit of Mr.
It was destroyed in a spectacular fire in Horse racing in the area took place occasionally, notably during visits of Queen Elizabeth I to the archbishop. Regular meetings became established first on a course at Park Hill in and from at Woodsidewhere particularly good prizes were offered for the races run under National Hunt rules.
In that sphere its prestige was second only to that of Aintreehome of the Grand National. Increasing local opposition to the presence of allegedly unruly racegoers coupled with the need to obtain a licence from the local authority led to it being closed down in He petitioned for and received permission from Queen Elizabeth I to establish a hospital and school in Croydon for the "poor, needy and impotent people" from the parishes of Croydon and Lambeth.
The foundation stone was laid in and the building was completed in There was a Warden in charge of the well-being of the almoners. The building takes the form of a courtyard surrounded by the chambers of the almoners and various offices.A listing of psychological research being conducted online.
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The following lesson plans and activities are designed to build such skills as creative writing, observing, vocabulary development and art appreciation. I would guess the progressive paradox of intelligence being nurture not nature is the strong linking of intelligence, education, and morality in their world view.
C. J. Chivers is a senior writer for The New York Times, contributing to the International and Investigative desks, and a writer-at-large for The New York Times Magazine, He has written from conflicts in Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, Israel, Libya, Russia, Georgia, Uganda, Uzbekistan, the Palestinian territories and elsewhere on a wide range of assignments.
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