Congressional findings and declarations of purpose a Abusive practices There is abundant evidence of the use of abusive, deceptive, and unfair debt collection practices by many debt collectors. Abusive debt collection practices contribute to the number of personal bankruptcies, to marital instability, to the loss of jobs, and to invasions of individual privacy.
There are class notes, numerous Supreme Court case summaries and information on how to write a research paper inside. Federalism Instructional Objectives 1. Explain the difference between federal and centralized systems of government, and give examples of each.
Show how competing political interests at the Constitutional Convention led to the adoption of a federal system, but one that was not clearly defined. Outline the ways in which national and state powers were interpreted by the courts. State the reasons why federal grants-in-aid to the states have been politically popular, and cite what have proved to be the pitfalls of such grants.
Distinguish between categorical grants and block grants or general revenue sharing. Distinguish between mandates and conditions of aid with respect to federal grant programs to states and localities. Discuss whether or to what extent federal grants to the states have created uniform national policies comparable to those of centralized governments.
Governmental structure - Federalism A. National government largely does not govern individuals directly, but gets states to do so in keeping with national policy B Federalism: Different political groups with different political purposes come to power in different places c.
Increased political activity d. Most obvious effect of federalism facilitates mobilization of political activity e. Federalism lowers the cost of political organization at the local level II. A bold, new plan to protect personal liberty 1.
Founders believed that neither national nor state government would have authority over the other since power comes from people who shift support.
New plan had no historical precedent 3. Elastic language in Article 1: Precise definitions of powers politically impossible due to competing interests, e. The debate on the meaning of federalism A. The Supreme Court speaks 1. Hamiltonian position espoused by Chief justice John Marshall 2.
Maryland settled two questions a.
Could Congress charter a national bank? Could states tax such a bank? Ogden - reaffirmed the concept of federal supremacy over interstate trade and state supremacy over intrastate trade. This created what was known as a "dual federalism. Federal taxes on state, local bond interest c.
Grants-in-aid - Monies passed from the federal to state governments. Grants show how political realities modify legal authority 2. Began before Constitution with land and cash grants to states 3. Dramatically increased in scope in twentieth century 4. Were attractive to state officials for various reasons a.
Federal budget surpluses nineteenth century b. Federal income tax increased revenues c. Federal control of money supply d. Appeared as free money for state officials 5. Required broad congressional coalitions with wide dispersion of funds B. Meeting national needs 1.
State, local governments became dependent on federal funds C.Virginia's SMART SCALE (§) is about picking the right transportation projects for funding and ensuring the best use of limited tax dollars. It is the method of scoring planned projects included in VTrans that are funded by House Bill Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player.
(1) Each Federal airway includes that airspace extending upward from 1, feet above the surface of the earth to, but not including, 18, feet MSL, except that Federal airways for Hawaii have no upper limits. What is ASAP? ASAP is a completely electronic payment application for federal agencies to quickly and securely disburse funds to recipient organizations. Watch video · The Supreme Court ended three momentous days of argument Wednesday over the constitutionality of the Obama administration's signature health .
Executive Order (EO) , Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade, was signed by President Obama on 19 March The Federal Trade Commission shall be authorized to enforce compliance with this subchapter, except to the extent that enforcement of the requirements imposed under this subchapter is specifically committed to another Government agency under any of paragraphs (1) through (5) of subsection (b), subject to subtitle B of the Consumer Financial.
Why a Credit Union? Credit Unions are not-for-profit, and exist to serve members, rather then maximize profits. Key differences between a Credit Union and a Bank.