A hurricane is a tropical cyclone with sustained winds of 74 miles per hour or more.
VI What is Cage Culture? Michael Masser1 Fish can be cultured in one of four culture systems—ponds, raceways, recirculating systems or cages. A cage or net pen is a system that confines the fish or shellfish in a mesh enclosure.
By strict definition, a cage and a net pen differ based on their construction. A cage has a completely rigid frame on all sides and a net pen has a rigid frame only around the top. Marine cages are often called net pens, even though they have completely rigid frames, and vice versa.
Structural differences have little effect on production practices or the environmental impact of these systems.
Cage culture uses existing water resources ponds, rivers, estuaries, open ocean, etc. The mesh retains the fish, making it easier to feed, observe and harvest them. The mesh also allows the water to pass freely between the fish and surrounding water resource, thus maintaining good water quality and removing wastes.
Cage culture probably originated with fishermen who used cages to accumulate fish for market.
Over time, they learned to feed the fish in these cages to increase their size and improve their overall health. The first cages used for culturing rather than just holding fish were probably developed in Southeast Asia about the end of the 18th century.
Modern cage culture in the U. Universities in the U. Freshwater cage research in the U. There has been little research on marine cage systems because of regulatory issues, a limited number of good quality sites, and the high cost of research.
Currently, however, there is renewed interest in marine cage or net pen culture in the U.
Federal and state regulations are being reexamined in an effort to streamline permitting processes and define rules, oversight and liabilities. These issues have not been resolved at the time of this writing. Therefore, this series of fact sheets will be devoted to freshwater cage culture and not address unresolved marine cage culture issues.
Today, freshwater cage culture is practiced to a limited extent in the southern U. Freshwater cage culture also allows farmers to use existing water resources that may or may not be used for other purposes. The fish produced are usually sold to local niche markets.
As wild-capture fisheries have declined and aquaculture has expanded, these niche markets have also grown. The result may be opportunities to increase cage production.
Freshwater cage culture is not foolproof or simple. On the contrary, it is more intensive in many ways than pond culture and probably should be considered as an alternative commercial enterprise only where open-pond culture is not practical because of excessive depth, obstructions that prevent harvest, or predator problems.
Advantages of Cage Culture Resource use flexibility Cage culture can be established in any suitable body of water, including lakes, ponds, mining pits, streams or rivers with proper water quality, access and legal authority.
This flexibility makes it possible to exploit underused water resources to produce fish. Specific state laws may restrict the use of public waters for private fish production. Contact your state Extension service or natural resource agency for regulatory information.
Low initial investment Relative to the cost of pond construction and its associated infrastructure electricity, roads, water wells, etc.
At low densities relative to pond surface acreage cages often do not require aeration or any electrical source. Cage materials are not especially expensive and many kinds of cages can be constructed with little experience.
Cage Construction and Placement. Simplified cultural practices Cages lend themselves to straightforward observation of the fish. The observation of fish behavior, especially feeding behavior, is critical to anticipating and avoiding problems with stress and diseases, which often occur in cage culture.
Simplified harvesting Cages are usually harvested by moving them into shallow water, crowding the fish into a restricted area, and simply dipping the fish out of the cage.
Or, the cage can be lifted partially out of the water so that the fish are crowded into a smaller volume, and then the fish dipped out. This makes it possible to partially harvest fish from cages as needed for local niche markets or personal consumption.Guide to GIVD's Fact Sheets metadata are available from the Internet platform The database name is a proper name (thus capitalised) of the associated website if available.
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Below are links to the free, downloadable Word Doc and PDF versions of the latest edition () of the Guidelines for the Use of Fishes in Research.. Both the Word and PDF versions contain useful internal and external hyperlinks.
REQUEST TO REMOVE SRAC Fact Sheets. The fact sheets provided by the Southern Regional Aquaculture provide information on important species of fish and shellfish produced in the Southern Region.
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