Introduction to Sociology Instructor: Observing the students over the past three months has caused me to ponder over how young people mature and what influences them on a daily basis. It was easy to see that although the seniors were only two grade levels above the sophomores, the two groups differed greatly in maturity.
Read how computational chemists in the US are learning to predict these structures — and how this is set to change the way we design and make medicines and other useful molecules. Despite having exactly the same molecular formula, these different structures can exhibit very different properties, such as colour, solubility, or melting point, and these can dramatically affect their behaviour.
For example the crystal structure of a medicine can affect whether the pill you take dissolves in your stomach or not, and the crystal structure in chocolate can significantly affect its taste. If undesirable polymorphs form unexpectedly it can cause huge problems.
In the HIV drug Ritonavir had to be recalled after it was discovered that low-solubility polymorphs were forming, reducing their ability to be absorbed into the body and drastically reducing its effectiveness.
Polymorphs Lego case study essay not only important in pharmaceuticals, but also have applications in flexible electronics, solar cells, explosives and agrochemicals, to name a few. Pharmaceutical polymorphs are also considered intellectual property and can be patented separately.
This led to lawsuits, and the two companies eventually settled in Avoiding production issues and guaranteeing full returns on investment are strong reasons why pharmaceutical companies expend considerable time and money searching for polymorphs.
Knowing where to look Gregory Beran and his colleagues at the University of California, Riverside, are computational chemists. They use computer modelling to predict what polymorphs might exist for a given compound.
The main factors affecting which polymorph forms are temperature and pressure, and computational chemists aim to map which polymorph will form at which temperature and pressure. These maps are called phase diagrams.
In other cases, we might predict a previously unknown polymorph with particularly desirable properties, and we could tell the experimentalists 'where to look' if they want to make it — that is, at what temperatures and pressures it would be most likely to be stable.
And they have done this with an unprecedented accuracy of half a kilojoule per mole. In practice, this means they can predict the phase transition temperatures to within 20—50 degrees C, and the transition pressures to within a few tenths of a Gigapascal.
This is a huge improvement on earlier studies, where errors of up to hundreds of degrees C and many Gigapascals were common. This is a huge achievement, which has required sustained effort and innovation.
For comparison, a half kilojoule is only about enough energy to heat a mL of water by 1 degree Celsius. But this high level of accuracy proves essential to predict the phase diagram correctly.
A passion for computational chemistry Gregory is passionate about the ability of computational chemistry to add value to experimental research. We hope the success of this study will change the minds of people working in this field, and will further convince experimentalists that theory can really make a useful contribution to this problem.
Read the full interview How would you explain your work to someone who has no knowledge of chemistry? Just like you can build many different structures from a pile of identical Legos, molecules can pack together in many different ways to form different crystal structures.
These different structures can exhibit very different properties colour, solubility, melting point, etc. Understanding what crystal structures, or polymorphs, can occur and the conditions they are stable at is very important for designing crystals with desirable properties or avoiding problems arising from the unexpected appearance of a new, undesirable form once a product is on the market see specific examples in question 2 below.
Exhaustively searching for crystal forms experimentally is difficult and time-consuming. McCrone wrote in that "The number of forms known for each compound is proportional to the time and money spent in research on that compound.
Our paper has taken the next major step:Essay Lego Case Study 1- HISTORY OF LEGO I will be responsible for starting the presentation.
In my part, I will begin by introducing the group’s members and saying what everyone is going to talk about. The Write Way. Have you ever built a Lego house? Think about the different stages of the process: designing your house, organizing your materials, constructing your creation, making final tweaks.
Seabirds like albatross, petrels and penguins face a growing threat from plastic waste in parts of the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian and Southern Oceans, according to a new study published on Monday.
Essay The Lego Group Case. Introduction Founded in , the LEGO Group is a privately held company headquartered in Billund, Denmark. The vision of Lego Group is to “inspire children to explore and challenge their own creative potential” Lego now ranks 4th in the world as a toy manufacturer.
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