Motivating Teachers to Improve Instruction Motivating teachers to improve instruction In the last two decades of education reform, teachers have been viewed as central to both the problems of education and their solutions. Education researchers and school leaders have faced the challenge of motivating teachers to high levels of performance. Because of this organizational structure, teachers are difficult to supervise, do not receive regular feedback from others, and often find it hard to collaborate. Perhaps as a result of these circumstances, the research also shows that many good teachers leave teaching in the first three years Frase
Research has found that other norms may exist which are dependent upon factors such as age or personality Huseman, et. The Equity Sensitivity Construct describes a spectrum of varying sensitivities to equity and inequity Huseman, et.
The idea of equity sensitivity determines the extent to which an individual will tolerate inequity. Equity sensitives will experience distress when faced with either type of inequity: Benevolents will experience distress and possibly guilt when they are in a situation of over-reward.
Entitleds experience distress when in an equitable or under-reward situation.
The Equity Sensitivity Construct is useful to understanding equity theory and individual behavior. However, the three categories of equity sensitivity do not account for all individual differences in preferences and behavior.
Individuals might show different equity sensitivities in different contexts Huseman, et. For example, an individual might be equity sensitive in their personal relationships, preferring an equitable balance or they might be an entitled at work and feel comfortable with over-reward.
Specifically, there are differences in preference for extrinsic tangible outcomes versus intrinsic outcomes Miles, et. A specific example of this is in the realm of pay: Conversely, benevolents rate extrinsic outcomes lower in preference and show a stronger preference for intrinsic outcomes Miles, et.
It is possible that some of these differences can be attributed to other factors such as age. Younger workers and older workers value different things and the meaning of work varies by age Smith, With this is mind, it is possible that age, or other external factors, might play a part in which equity sensitivity group an individual is likely to be in.
Where does Perceived Inequity Come From? According to equity theory, perceived inequity comes from social comparisons Adams, A person to whom we compare ourselves to is called the Comparison Other.
Comparison Other There are several factors that an employee can use in determining the "comparison other. Self-inside — their experience versus someone else in their present company Self-outside — their experience they had in another organization Other-inside — another co-worker's experience inside their present company Other-outside — an individual's experience in another organization For example, a newly hired employee would choose "self-outside" since they would not have adequate experiences to compare in their current place of employment, whereas someone with a longer length of service would choose "self-inside".
Equity Theory states that people strive hard to achieve and maintain a state of equity or fairness in order to maintain internal, psychological balance Adams, However, when ratios are different, a state of inequity exists, and employees will be motivated to bring it back into balance.
With both types of inequity, under and overpayment, the amount of inequity a person feels is proportional to the size of the difference between this person's ratio and their comparison other.
Examples of Inequity Underpayment Inequity: As of current, Sarah has been with Corporation X for 3 years and is in line to move into a management position within the next six months. About three months ago, Corporation X hired another team member in the HR department to assist Sarah in her daily duties as they were getting too much for one person.
One day at lunch Alison reveals her salary to Sarah and tells her that she is surprised a company would pay her that salary with no experience in HR. She is immediately leaded to feeling under-compensated considering she does most of the work and Alison just helps.
Sarah realizes that she needs to make Alison accountable for more projects so her inputs match her outputs. One day at lunch Alison reveals her salary to Sarah and tells her that she is surprised a company would pay her that salary starting out in their HR department even though she has experience elsewhere.
Sarah realizes that she makes a few more dollars than Alison. She is immediately lead to feeling overcompensated considering she does most of the same work Alison does and gets paid more. Sarah realizes that she needs to be accountable for a few more things than Alison so her inputs match her outputs.
Research on Equity Theory In the four decades since John Stacey Adams pioneered the Equity Theory of motivation, an extensive amount of research has been conducted testing the validity of this theory.
The research has tested parts of the theory including the effects of over and under payment equity, equity sensitivity, and the behavioral and cognitive methods of reducing the dissonance caused by feelings of inequity.
Within the work setting Equity Theory has been researched in several important areas. Outlined below, research related to determine the effects of perceived equities or inequities on the level of worker motivation or satisfaction will be discussed.
Each of these research studies focused on key pieces of Equity Theory in practice: Lawler and O'Gara conducted their research via an experiment. Forty Yale University undergraduate students were hired to conduct interviews and were paid on a piece-rate basis.
The workers were given two hours to complete as many interviews as possible.Equity Theory. Equity Theory of Motivation The equity theory of motivation is used to describe the relationship between the employees perception of how fairly is he being treated and how hard he is motivated to work Motivation is the activation of an energized goal-oriented behavior.
Everyone takes up a job as they are motivated by some factor or the other. To help you motivate yourself to achieve your goals, consider applying Locke and Latham’s goal theory and Victor Vroom’s expectancy theory. Goal Theory The basic premise of goal theory is that people can form expectations about the future and strive to .
Start studying MGT Chapter Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. equity theory, expectancy theory, and goal-setting theory. A Equity Theory: How fairly do you think you"re being treated in Relation to Others Goal setting theory suggests that employees can be motivated by goals .
A comparison of equity theory and expectancy theory and some implications for managers in a global work environment. Tenets of Adams' Equity and Vroom's Expectancy Theories goal-setting. For example, employees can use the equity theory to determine if inequity has occurred, and if so, they can use the expectancy theory to act upon the inequity.
Weaknesses The following factors illustrate some of the problems with Equity Theory. Other explanations of employee motivation are embodied in the three-needs theory, goal-setting theory, reinforcement theory, intrinsic/extrinsic theory, equity theory, and .