Page 14 Share Cite Suggested Citation: The National Academies Press. Actually, nearly all fossils can be regarded as intermediates in some sense; they are life forms that come between the forms that preceded them and those that followed.
Why is someone attracted to another? Why are some attracted to males, others to females, and yet others primarily to children? While such questions might be conscientiously asked, the meaningfulness of the answers is fleeting.
Fads may certainly be involved. At any particular time the relative value of each specific feature or trait varies. Looks, intellect, wealth, family, religion, sense of humor, independence, and fertility, just to name a few, have all had their time in the limelight as salient in partner selection.
Among the matters that seem to be taken for granted, however, is sexual orientation: Although there may be flexibility in some desires, only for a minority is there flexibility in sexual orientation. For most individuals it is a fundamental prerequisite in choosing a partner. And this prime concern toward the sex of the intended partner is more than on the other features.
Where does this emphasis on sexual orientation come from? These are particularly important to provide a framework within which the evidencefor biological influences can be evaluated.
These definitions are concomitant with the proposition that five main levels of sexual expression must l appreciated to get a proper sexual profile of any individual: Sexual orientation refers to the sex, male or female, of the erotic-love-affectional partners a person prefers.
The terms heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual should best be adjectives, not nouns, and best applied to behaviors, not people.
Such usage does not direct itself to the frequency or motive for any particular behavior, only its focus. The term homosexual is best reserved for those whose sexual activities are exclusively or almost exclusively with members of the same sex, the term heterosexual for those whose erotic companions are always or almost always with the opposite sex, and the term bisexual or ambisexual for those with sexual activities with members of either sex Diamond abab.
This is the way the terms will be used in this chapter.
It also typically follows with the gender role or behavior patterns society imposes or the individual prefers. But this is not always so. These distinctions are crucial, particularly in regard to transsexualism or other identity-gender pattern interactions.
In the real world, the transsexual, as are others, is typically labeled in terms of his or her sexual anatomy. Initially reared as society views them, transsexuals eventually plot their own sex-reversed life course.
This aspect of life is separate from their sexual orientation since a transsexual may be homosexually or heterosexually inclined.
This use of the term is in an affiliative sense. It is as if one might identify as an American Indian or a Unitarian. The term core identity, coined by Stolleris used by some to indicate the central nature of this conviction. Gender identity refers to how an individual sees himself or herself as fulfilling these societal expectations.
The descriptive terms often used in this regard are relative to masculinity and femininity. Patterns of behavior are phenotypical expressions. The terms boys and girls and men and women are social terms; the terms male and female are biological terms.
It is obvious that a male can act as a girl or woman and a female can act as a boy or man. Males, for instance, can live as women, and females can live as men; a male may be reared as a boy but grow to live as a woman. It is common but often misleading to use sex and gender as synonyms.
True, sex and gender are most often in concert, but they are not necessarily so. Ejaculation is another obvious distinction; it is a common feature of male orgasm but not of female orgasm.
Yet another well-known difference is the wide range of orgasmic types among females, ranging from the frequent finding of women for whom orgasm is rare or nonexistent to those for whom multiple orgasm is common. Among males either extreme is rare Kinsey et al. These differences obviously pertain to copulation, but many other mechanisms exist that are less related to coitus but very much related to sexual expression and childbearing.The evidence that Darwin found for the influence of geographical distribution on the evolution of organisms has become stronger with advancing knowledge.
For example, approximately 2, species of flies belonging to the genus Drosophila are now found throughout the world. The Influence of Heredity and Environment Today, researchers generally agree that heredity and environment have an interactive influence on intelligence.
Many researchers believe that there is a reaction range to IQ, which refers to the limits placed on IQ by heredity. Dec 09, · The evidence suggests we are destined to behave according to your biological characteristics. Even if the evidence is true it does not mean that we are destined to do what our genes influence us to, other factors are more feelthefish.coms: 9.
Discuss the biological approach in psychology. Refer to at least one other approach in your answer. (12 marks) The biological approach focuses on both the physiological and evolutionary aspects which explain human behaviour.
The causal level of analysis incorporates physiological explanations, such as the effect of nerves and hormones on behaviour.
Discuss two biological explanations of depression (8+16 marks) AO1: One biological explanation for depression is family studies. Family studies have proved that having a first-degree relative with depression appears to be a risk factor of depression.
Discuss the Evidence for Biological Influence on Personality Essay In the early s, Edward Thorndike decided to do comparative studies of twins, siblings, and unrelated individuals of family histories and school eliminations - Discuss the Evidence for Biological Influence on Personality Essay introduction.